The earliest study of endocrinology began in China. Although most of the relevant tissues and endocrine glands had been identified by early anatomists, a more humoral approach to understanding biological function and disease was favoured by the ancient Greek and Roman thinkers such as Aristotle , Hippocrates , Lucretius , Celsus , and Galen , according to Freeman et al.
In , Arnold Berthold noted that castrated cockerels did not develop combs and wattles or exhibit overtly male behaviour. In fact, one of two other things could have been true: that the testes modified or activated a constituent of the blood or that the testes removed an inhibitory factor from the blood. It was not proven that the testes released a substance that engenders male characteristics until it was shown that the extract of testes could replace their function in castrated animals.
Pure, crystalline testosterone was isolated in The Graves' disease was named after Irish doctor Robert James Graves ,  who described a case of goiter with exophthalmos in The German Karl Adolph von Basedow also independently reported the same constellation of symptoms in , while earlier reports of the disease were also published by the Italians Giuseppe Flajani and Antonio Giuseppe Testa, in and respectively,  and by the English physician Caleb Hillier Parry a friend of Edward Jenner in the late 18th century.
In William Bayliss and Ernest Starling performed an experiment in which they observed that acid instilled into the duodenum caused the pancreas to begin secretion, even after they had removed all nervous connections between the two. They named this substance " secretin " and coined the term hormone for chemicals that act in this way.
Anatomical and functional imaging in endocrine hypertension
Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski made the observation in that removing the pancreas surgically led to an increase in blood sugar , followed by a coma and eventual death—symptoms of diabetes mellitus. In , Banting and Best realized that homogenizing the pancreas and injecting the derived extract reversed this condition.
Neurohormones were first identified by Otto Loewi in The solution was then used to bathe a non-innervated second heart. If the vagus nerve on the first heart was stimulated, negative inotropic beat amplitude and chronotropic beat rate activity were seen in both hearts. This did not occur in either heart if the vagus nerve was not stimulated.
The vagus nerve was adding something to the saline solution. The effect could be blocked using atropine , a known inhibitor to heart vagal nerve stimulation. Clearly, something was being secreted by the vagus nerve and affecting the heart. The "vagusstuff" as Loewi called it causing the myotropic muscle enhancing effects was later identified to be acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Loewi won the Nobel Prize for his discovery. Recent work in endocrinology focuses on the molecular mechanisms responsible for triggering the effects of hormones. The first example of such work being done was in by Earl Sutherland.
Sutherland investigated whether hormones enter cells to evoke action, or stayed outside of cells. He studied norepinephrine , which acts on the liver to convert glycogen into glucose via the activation of the phosphorylase enzyme.
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He homogenized the liver into a membrane fraction and soluble fraction phosphorylase is soluble , added norepinephrine to the membrane fraction, extracted its soluble products, and added them to the first soluble fraction. Phosphorylase activated, indicating that norepinephrine's target receptor was on the cell membrane, not located intracellularly.
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He later identified the compound as cyclic AMP cAMP and with his discovery created the concept of second-messenger-mediated pathways. He, like Loewi, won the Nobel Prize for his groundbreaking work in endocrinology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Endocrinology journal. Illustration depicting the primary endocrine organs of a female. Main article: Endocrine system.
Examples of amine hormones. Vitamin D 3.
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Examples of steroid hormones. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. Archived from the original on Retrieved Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: Bios Scientific Publ. Textbook of endocrine physiology 4th ed. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. American Diabetes Association. London: Andre Deutsch.
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See our disclaimer. Functional and Morphological Imaging of the Endocrine System Morphological imaging' and functional imaging' are current mainstays for the diagnosis, successful treatment and accurate follow-up of patients with endocrine disorders. The biological effects of purified atrial extracts, i. Now, a series of polypeptides, of the same family, and all derived from a homologous precursor in the different species are know to exert the diuretic and vasorelaxant effects.
This development of the discovery of a peptide hormone is unparalleled in the sense that it was mostly morphologists who contributed to the final characterization of these cardiac hormones. Thus, it was a great honor for us to be given the opportunity on the occasion of the 8th European Anatomical Congress to organize a special satellite symposium on the rapidly growing field of research in cardiac endocrinology. The symposium "Functional Endocrinology of the Endocrine Heart" was planned as an interdisciplinary meeting to enable anatomists to follow recent advances in cardiac endocrinology.
Morphological review: immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of the endocrine heart. Evidence for the existence of cardiac hormones in the conductive system of the mammalian heart. Catecholamine-containing granules in cardiac chromaffin cells as compared with atrial granules. Storage and secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide ANP by cultured atrial and ventricular cells from the neonatal rat. Effect of an ANP bolus injection on endocrine and renal regulation in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.